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Showing posts with label science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label science. Show all posts
LED (Light emitting diode) | Thermistor
LED is a diode which give us visible light when it is forward bias condition LED is not an ordinary diode where silicon is used, To make the LED we use gallium, arsenic and phosphorus compound which have semi-transparent, gallium arsenide give us infrared radiation but gallium arsenide phosphorus give us visible radiation.

In the Early days LED emits low infrared  radiation these infrared radiation is not seen directly by our eyes, our eyes are able only seen visible radiation, but these infrared radiation LEDs are used in the remote and other controlling devices.

The first visible LED was developed by the Nick Holonyak in 1962, but this LED has loved the intensity which is further developed, at the present time we have Various type of LED  such as Visible LED, Ultraviolet, Infrared LEDs are available in the market.

We use this LED in the different types of the electronic device to shoe their output, due to the visible property of the LED these are used in the home to remove the darkness from the home, There are many types of color are available in the LED which makes this beautiful.


When p-n junction in forwarding bias condition then electron and holes are combined to each other at the junction and get neutralized to each other when an electron goes to higher level energy state to lover level energy state they release energy in the form of light, so we can say that LED emits visible radiation under forwarding bias condition but in the p-n junction the silicon material is used which is opaque so the p-n junction diode not emits radiation under forwarding bias condition

the color of the radiation of the LED depends on the material is used but most of the case Red, Green, Blue, LED is used on electronic devices.

Application of LED

LED emits visible radition so it is used in the various electronic devices such as Digital watches, Calculator, Torch, etc.

The group of LED is called Array which is used to display Number, latter, and another symbol, the most the famous array is the combination of 7 LED which displays the number from 0 to 9, in the array all the anode are connected with the common wire and the cathode are connected our desire level LED is widely used in the electronic to give an important result.

IN the early days LED are used in the lamps for the brightness in the home these LEDs consume less energy and easy to replace but at the present time LED are made according to their requirement, if we need to produce high intensity from the LED then we can make this LED big in the size and produce high intensity

In the LED have two lead, if we connect this LED in the reverse bias condition they did not emits light because this LED is a type of Diode which work when it is forward bias condition
This LED is used as the sensor in the different electronic devices and also uses as the switching device, LED have much property so this is used over the large scale, The light of the LED is not coherent in nature


A thermistor is a very useful device, the meaning of thermistor is thermal+Resistor, it is a thermal sensing device when the temperature of the thermistor is increased then the resistance of the thermistor decreases, due to their this property the thermistor is used as a switching device in various devices the value of a thermistor is a function of the temperature, the thermistor is a high temperature coefficient devise on the basis of temperature the thermistor is classified into two parts
(1) NTC thermistor
(2) PTC thermistor

(1) NTC thermistor

The resistance of NTC thermistor is decreased when the temperature has increased this thermistor are made by ceramic material, these thermistors are made by a mixture of oxide of nickel, magnetize cobalt, titanium, iron copper, uranium
The general formula of NTC thermistor is
where A is divalent
'B' is tetravalent

 (2) PTC thermistor

The resistance of PTC thermistor is increased when the temperature has increased these thermisters are made by using two compound material
* Barium titanate structure called position
* Diamond lattice type structure called a solicitor

LED (Light emitting diode) | Thermistor

What is the sensor?

A sensor is a switching device which detects the object and send the information related to that object to the electronic device, and the second electronic device analyzes the receive data and do response according to the user requirement.


The sensor is not working alone, a sensor always used with another electronic device, Sensor are used in a large amount of the electronic device such as Touch mobile, Automatic switches, Brightness control and another electronic device, the sensor is also used in the application to give the better experience of the user.

The sensor is also used to find the temperature of the object, pressure and rate of flow of the different types of liquid material those the sensor which measure the temperature, pressure, and flow rate of liquid are called MARG sensor the full form of MARG is magnetic, angular rate, and gravity.

Application of sensor

The sensor is widely used in electronic devices to improve the quality and feature of that product the sensor are made according to their uses nowadays sensor are used in every field such as Robotics, Manufacturing, Mobile application/Software, Medicine, Aerospace, Cars, and other industry, there is a wide range of the sensor which use to find the chemical and the physical property of the material.

The sensitivity of the sensor we can configure and make it sensitivity for our requirements when the input data is changing the output data are also change according to the sensor measure the viscosity of fluid, vibration, and pH of the fluids.

The sensitivity of the sensor shows how much output changes when input changes to understand the sensitivity we can take an example, when the mercury of the thermometer moves the 1 cm then the temperature difference is being 1 degree Celsius, then with the help of this the result we can say that  it follows the liner property.

Property of the sensor

There are many properties of the sensor which are discussed as below

The sensitivity of the sensor we can configure and the output of the sensor we can set to our requirements so this is one of the most important properties of the sensor, at the present time we can make the sensor to our requirements and improve the quality and feature of our product

The sensor senses only those object which we want to detect, this the sensor is insensitive to other object so this is another most important property of the sensor

The sensor is not influenced by the measured property so the quality of the object is same before and after the sense of the object

Sensor Deviation                

The output of the sensor always a fixed value some time it reaches its maximum value and some time is going to its minimum value.

The sensitivity of the sensor depends on the input and output signal if the sensitivity of the sensor does not work to our condition then this is called sensor error and we find this error with the help of the sensitivity graph, because the sensitivity graph of the sensor is liner so if any error occurs then it shows on the graph.

If the output signals of the sensor changes slowly then this the problem we face due to the long term use of the sensor, if we use the sensor for a long time then it physical property changes this is called drift.

Definition of sensor uses and application

System administrator

If we have multiple servers than to communicate with each server a common system requires this system is called system administrator, the system administrator control all the process which is doing inside the device such as app installing, IP changer, File transferring and another process

System administrator and configuration management tool
System administrator

All the process inside the computer is controlled by the system administrator but if the number of servers is more and there are large no of the process are running inside the device the system administrator are not able to handle all this process and server communication

If we work with the limited of servers we can easily Handel all the process with the help of system administrator and we can add more system administrator to doing all this limited process but if the number of the process is more than 500+ the local administrator is not able the run these process

Working of the system administrator

There are some process which is doing by the system the administrator is given as below

(1) App installing

When we install an app on the computer then the system administrator check all requirements which are required to run this application on the computer, if any files are missing on the device such as driver, launcher and other files then the app are not properly run on the computer, so to run this application on the PC first of all check which file is missing on the computer after finding it we install these files on the PC and run this app on the PC

(2) IP changing

When two or more devices are communicating with each other with the help of the internet then an address is required to send or receive the file on their destination these address is called IP address the IP address of the device is unique, but if some cases when we transferring od important data to another person and we would not want to share our IP with another person then we can change it, the changing of IP address are the different process

(3) System manager

The system administrator also checks the file transferring and operating system running process if some files are corrupted then it sends as a message to fix it some of the problems are easily fixed with the help of system tool

Configuration management tool

If we have a large number of computer and these computers are connected to a common server then to handle all the process and management of this computer a tool is required this tool is called configuration management tool

The system administrator of the computer can handle only the limited of the process so it is not used over the large scale but Configuration management tool of the server handle a large number of process of the computer, if we change some process inside the device such as app installation, deletion, updating, creating then all these processes we can do it with the help of configuration a management tool, the configuration management tool updating all the computers which are connected to this server in some minutes but when we do this work manually on the computers then it takes more time but configuration management tool helps us to update and create all the computer with the help of single code
Types of configuration management tool

There are mainly two types of Configuration management tool which are given as below
(a) Push-Based
(b) Pull-Based

(a) Push-Base

The push-base Configuration management tool upgrade all the computers with the help of single code if some of the computers are pre upgraded then it does not upgrade that computers, the upgrading process take few minutes, if the operating system and other software are corrupted all the computers then with the help of Configuration management tool we can re-upgrade all the computer with one single code

If we want to upgrade some specific computer then we upload the updated file on the git-hub, after this process a notification are going to the specific computer and if that computer user are want to upgrade that the computer than the can do it
Ex- Ansible, Salt-stack

(b) Pull-Based

That computer which is connected with the help of Pull-based management tool is upgraded to itself if any upgrade is found the the server than it takes the upgraded file and upgrades all its software so in this management tool computers are able to upgrade itself for some time interval

The pull base tool is easy to use and if we add some new devices with the server then there are no impact on another computer, there are another advantage of this system if we have added an upgraded computer to this system to the given network then no impact on another system every computer are upgraded to itself to this management tool so the human effort is reduces
Ex- CHEF, Puppet

System administrator and configuration management tool

Nuclear Physics

The atomic nucleus is discovered by Rutherford Experiment, in the atom electrons are move around the nucleus but nucleus cannot move they take their original position, in this article but talk about the nucleus and their property

Classification of nucleus

On the basis of elements inside the nucleus they are classified into following types


When two or more element have their same Atomic number ‘Z’ but different in mass ‘A’ then they are called isotopes, there are many elements in the periodic table which show isotopes property


If two or more atoms take same atomic mass but different is atomic number then it is called isobaric, in the periodic table different elements are shown isobaric property


When two or more atoms have contain same number of neutron then they are called isotones
Important property of Nucleus

Nuclear size

Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Physics

The size of different element in the periodic are different when we goes left to right then size of the atoms is increases because when we go to left to right in the period the number of electron and proton in the atoms is increases so size is decrease due to attraction force

When we goes to top to bottom in any group of periodic table then size of the atom is increases this is due to increase the number of shell in the atoms

Rutherford do many experiment to find the size of nucleus, he working on the scattering of alpha particle on different element and he find that the order of the nucleus of the atom is 10-14 to 10-15 meters and the whole atoms is the order of 10-10 meters so we can say that the nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than atom on the basis of different experiment Rutherford give the general formula to find the size of atoms.
Where ‘R’ is the radius of atoms, ‘ro’ is the constant and ‘A’ is the atomic mass of the element

Nucleus mass

The nucleus of the atoms is consist neutron and proton so we can say that the mass of the nucleus is the sum of the masses of neutron and proton but in real the mass of nucleus is less than addition of masses of neutron and proton this is called mass defect

Nuclear Physics