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Showing posts with label physics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label physics. Show all posts

What is 5G Spectrum?


5G Spectrum is the range of frequency, of the radio waves which are used in telecommunication, in the 5G technology the range of the frequency of the radio waves is lies between 600 MHz to 39 GHz, these range of frequency is further divided into three parts which are given below.
(a) Lower 5G
(b) Middle 5G
(c) Higher 5G

What is 5G Spectrum | Waves and telecommunication
5G Spectrum


(a) Lower 5G


Lower 5G services are work as 4G services because the speed of the internet and range of the cells are similar to the 4G services the range of the frequency of lower 5G is lies between 600-700 MHz and the speed of data transferring is lies between 30-250 Mbps so the lower 5G is called the 4G because it is similar to the 4G services, But the lower 5G is more advance and more stable with respect to the 4G services.

In the lower 5G, most of the data are transmitted through the optical fiber cable but at the end of the communication the data are transmitted through the wireless, In the 4G services the data are not transmitted through the optical fiber cable so the speed of data transferring are not stable but in the 5Gtechnology the data are transmitted to the speed of light so we feel the better experience in the 5G technology.

(b) Middle 5G


In the middle 5G the range of the frequency of the radio waves lie between 2.5-3.7 GHz, Due to increasing the frequency of the radio waves the speed of the 5G services are increasing, in the middle 5G the speed of the data transferring is lying between 250-900 Mbps

The middle 5g are used over a large scale in the future because the range and cells (Small pieces circular area where the transmission are possible) of the wave are perfect to spread this network over the large scale this the network is also used in the MAN (Metropolitan area network) 

(c) Higher 5G


The frequency range of the higher 5G is lies between 25-39GHz, Due to this higher frequency the speed of the data transfering are increasing too much the speed of the higher 5G is lies between 1-20 Gbps

But the problem is that this higher 5G is services are not use over the large scale in the present time because due to the higher frequency the wavelength of the wave is decreasing so we can not transmitter this higher frequency wave for longer distance
The higher 5G services only the local area such as a school, Stadium, company, Bank branches, LAN, etc.

What are the waves?


When the particle of the medium vibrates at their position and transfer the energy from one position to another position are called waves.

Types of waves


There are mainly two types of waves
(a) Mechanical waves
(b) Electromagnetic waves

(a) Mechanical waves


Those waves which are traveling in the Solid, Liquid and gases are called mechanical waves, For the propagation of the mechanical wave Elasticity and inertia may be present in the medium, Mechanical waves are propagate only in the medium.
Ex- Sound waves, Water waves, etc.

Types of mechanical waves


There are mainly two types of mechanical waves
Longitudinal waves
Transverse waves

Longitudinal waves


If the particle of the medium is vibrated along with the propagation of the waves then this type of waves are called transverse waves, the propagation  n of the waves is possible due to the compression and rarefaction of the waves
Ex- Spring waves, Earth quick waves, etc.

In the compression of the waves the particle of the medium are close to each other and the density of the particle is increasing at that point so the pressure at that point is increased due to compression
In the rarefaction of the waves, the particle of the wave is going far to each other so the resultant the density of the particle at the point decreases and the pressure at that point is decreases due to rarefaction.

Transverse Waves


If the particle of the medium is vibrated perpendicular to the propagation of wave are called transverse waves these waves are propagated only the solid material and the surface of the liquid these transverse waves are not propagate in the inside of the liquid and the gaseous material this waves are propagated in the form of the crest and thought
Ex- Tightly wire, water waves

What is 5G Spectrum | Waves and telecommunication


Solar cell


A solar cell is an Electrical device which convert sun energy into the electricity, to make a solar panel there are many components is required, the solar cell working on the p-n junction principle if you did not want what is p-n junction we explain in detail in the below of the article.

Solar cell, solar module, and solar panel
Solar panel


What is the P-N junction in the solar cell?


Doping


To make a p-n junction we take the silicon material and we add some other material in the silicon this process is called doping, the silicon is taken 4 electrons on their outer cell so to make a semiconductor the device adds that material that takes 3 or 5 electrons on their outer cell.

P-type and n-type semiconductor


When we add 3 electron material on the silicon than the fourth place of the silicon material is vacant so it is work as a positive charge the material the vacant place is called hole and when we add 5 electron material on the silicon then four-electron are able to make the bond of the silicon material but the fifth electron of the material is free so this type of semiconductor work as an n-type semiconductor.

p-n junction


Before the study of P-N junction, we read some basic component of the P-N junction, when we connect a p-type semiconductor with the n-type semiconductor then the joining point is called p-n junction, this p-n junction not allowed the charge carrier to flow from one place to another place
So we need some external energy to flow this charge the carrier from one type semiconductor to another type of semiconductor.

The n-type semiconductor is contained electron which works as majority charge carrier so when we give heat or sunlight on this n-type semiconductor then the charge carrier is excited and able to goes another type semiconductor.

Components layer in Solar panel


Many components are attached to a complete solar panel which we are discussing in below.

Frame


This is a basic component of the solar panel this components help us to protect all the components of the solar panel this components give the strength of the solar panel and taken all other components inside the frame.

Glass


This is one of the most important parts of the solar panel because this glass sheet protects the solar cell from the dust, water scratch so this part plays a very important role in the solar panel this glass sheet is also save the sunlight inside the panel the glass save 50% more sunlight for the solar cell.

If we remove the glass from the solar panel then most of the sunlight is reflected so the production of electricity is reduced so without the glass sheet the solar panel is not working on the full potential this glass panel absorb 95% of sunlight and only 5% light are reflected from the panel.

Encapsulant


This layer protects the solar cell from the moisturizer and give all the absorb to the solar cell this layer is placed between the glass layer and solar cells this is another most important part of the solar panel.

Working procedure of solar cell


In the solar cell, a p-n junction device is used, the n-type a semiconductor is above the solar panel and all the sunlight is incident only this type semiconductor because n-type semiconductor take majority charge carrier which is the electron.

Another semiconductor which is p-type, this semiconductor not taken in the front of the sun this layer is placed below of the n-type semiconductor, only n-type semiconductor are face the sun because after the incident of the light beam on the solar cell the electron of n-type the semiconductor is excited and able to produce electricity.

A solar cell, solar module, and solar panel


The solar cell is the smallest element of this device which produce electricity after the incident of the light beam on the solar panel but only 0.5-volt electricity are produces by one solar cell so we use a large number of this small solar cell and produce high voltage current.

The solar module is the combination of the 72 solar sells so the net voltage is produced by one solar module is 36 volt because one solar cell produces only 0.5-volt energy.

The solar panel is the combination of solar module and this the solar panel is used to produce high voltage but solar panel give us Direct current (DC) which we are not using n our home because in our house most of the devices are working on the alternating current so this DC current we not use directly.

For the use of solar panel electricity first of all we convert this DC current into the AC current with the help of an inverter and then we use this AC current for our home devices such as fan, Light bulb, etc.



                                                                                                                                                                            



Solar cell, solar module, and solar panel

Transformer types and oil name | Construction and working

                                                        Step-up Transformer



The transformer is a device which is used to increase and decrease the voltage, this transfer is used only for AC current and the transformer is work on the Electromagnetic induction principle there are many parts are required to make a transfer which is discussed as below but before the discuss the different parts we read that how many types of transformer and their working.

Types of Transformer


There are mainly two types of the transformer which are discuss as below
(a) Step-up Transformer
(b) Step-down Transformer

(a) Step-up Transformer


This transformer is used to increase the voltage, In the transformer there are two coils are winding on the opposite of the iron core if you do not know what is core then we discuss this topic below but first of I all understand this problem.

In the Step-up transformer there are two coils, one coil is used for input and another is used for output, the input coil is called primary coil and the output coil is called the secondary coil, the number of turns in the primary coil is less with respect to a secondary coil in the step-up transformer.

(b) Step-down Transformer


This transformer is used to decrease the voltage of input, This transformer is similar to the step-down transformer but the number of turns in the primary coil is more than a secondary coil so the working process of this transformer is different from another transformer.

Construction of Transformer


To make a transfer there are many components are used we discuss the whole transformer in detail step by step, first of all, we know about those components which are most important for transformer these detail are given as below.

The core of the Transformer 


The core is one of the most important parts of the transformer because the wire is wrapped at core itself, this core is made by soft iron and this core is not solid material, this core is made by large number soft iron strips and these strips are joined to each other and design the whole core.

These strips are joined to each other by applying burnishes because these burnishes are reduce the effect of eddy current and no empty space left after burnishes if you do not know what is eddy current then we explain it in short form the eddy current is that current which opposes the main current.

Winding in the transformer


The wrapping of the wire on the core is called winding, without the winding the transformer cannot exist because these winding is doing to increase and decrease the voltage, these winding is doing on the core of two opposite side the first side is called the primary coil and another is called secondary coil, this coil is separate from the core and not touch the surface of core directly, we place a nonconducting material between coil and core.

Tank


The take of the transformer is another most important part because in the tank the wire wrapped core is placed this tank looks like as box, after the placing core inside the tank, this tank is filled with oil and this oil is called Nepthaoil, it is a high-density oil which is filled most of the transformer.

Expansion Tank


This is the secondary tank on the transformer when the transformer is heated then its oil is expended but inside the tank the space is limited so an expansion tank is included on the transformer this expansion tank is directly connect to the main tank and help the main tank when its oil expands, this the expansion tank is used to fill the oil in the transformer.

Transformer oil


The Nepthaoil is used in the transformer we use this oil as two types first of all this oil decrease the effect of eddy current and another is that it is used to reduce the temperature of the transformer because when transformer is on Running condition they produce a large amount of current so to cool it we use this Nepthaoil inside the tank.

Terminal and bushing of the transformer


In the transformer for input and output voltage the bushing is used it is also called as terminal the input bush is bigger than outer bush, the input bush is placed over the high voltage and according to condition the outer terminal of the transformer is set, the outer terminal voltage is set according to the area requirement but at the input terminal, there are large The amount of voltage is set.

Buchholz Relay


Buchholz Relay is work as a switch in the transformer, it is a temperature based switch which is work on mercury because the mercury-based device is one of the best device which gives us the correct information about the temperature of the transformer so most of the transformer this Buchholz Relay is used, this the device is placed between the tank and the expansion tank.

When the temperature of the transformer is increased then this Buchholz Relay has measured the temperature of the transformer and when the temperature is goes to their limitation then they cut off the connection and the current is stop to flow through the transformer and when the transformer is reached their normal condition the this Buchholz Relay is set their normal condition so we can say this device is playing an important role inside the transformer.

Breather of the Transformer


Breather s another most important element of the transformer because it is used to supply the fresh air inside the expansion tank, The expansion tank of the transformer is half-filled with the oil so on another half section air is filled but it is a condition that inside the expansion tank only those air are filled which have no any moisturizer and no dust particle so breather is made to keeping in mind no moisturizer and dust particle is enter inside the expansion tank.

So to stop the moisturizer we use a gel particle these gel is called silica get and this gel is able to absorb the moisturizer from the air, To stop the dust particle an oil section is set on the breather this oil is stop the dust particle and passes the dust-free air so the complete breather is work as a fresh air provider inside the expansion tank.

Explosion valve


This valve helps the transformer to remove the oil form the tank when it is overheated, Because some of the cases if the Buchholz Relay of the transformer is not working and the temperature of the transformer is an increase above of the limitation layer then this valve is removed all the oil inside the tank and cool it, the face of the explosion valve is made with soft metal so when the temperature reaches up to maximum then this help to remove the oil.

Radiator (cooling tube)


The radiator of the transformer is used to cool the transformer, inside the radiator there are many small pipes is used when the transformer is heated than this pipe is filled with the oil which is inside the tank, after the reaching of the hot oil in the pipe this oil is cool down and after this process the oil is going to the main tank of the transformer.

Transformer types and oil name | Construction and working


Nuclear Physics

The atomic nucleus is discovered by Rutherford Experiment, in the atom electrons are move around the nucleus but nucleus cannot move they take their original position, in this article but talk about the nucleus and their property

Classification of nucleus


On the basis of elements inside the nucleus they are classified into following types

Isotopes

When two or more element have their same Atomic number ‘Z’ but different in mass ‘A’ then they are called isotopes, there are many elements in the periodic table which show isotopes property

Isobars

If two or more atoms take same atomic mass but different is atomic number then it is called isobaric, in the periodic table different elements are shown isobaric property

Isotones


When two or more atoms have contain same number of neutron then they are called isotones
Important property of Nucleus

Nuclear size

Nuclear Physics
Nuclear Physics

The size of different element in the periodic are different when we goes left to right then size of the atoms is increases because when we go to left to right in the period the number of electron and proton in the atoms is increases so size is decrease due to attraction force

When we goes to top to bottom in any group of periodic table then size of the atom is increases this is due to increase the number of shell in the atoms

Rutherford do many experiment to find the size of nucleus, he working on the scattering of alpha particle on different element and he find that the order of the nucleus of the atom is 10-14 to 10-15 meters and the whole atoms is the order of 10-10 meters so we can say that the nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than atom on the basis of different experiment Rutherford give the general formula to find the size of atoms.
                                                                                R=roA1/3
Where ‘R’ is the radius of atoms, ‘ro’ is the constant and ‘A’ is the atomic mass of the element

Nucleus mass

The nucleus of the atoms is consist neutron and proton so we can say that the mass of the nucleus is the sum of the masses of neutron and proton but in real the mass of nucleus is less than addition of masses of neutron and proton this is called mass defect

Nuclear Physics


Interference of waves | Definition | Fringes


Interference of light


Coherent waves
Interference of waves | Definition | Fringes


Before the study of interference we have to know that what is superposition and how its play the role in interference the interference of light is depend upon the superposition of light waves so we have to need the knowledge of the superposition

What is superposition


When two or more waves travelling in the space and they are meet each other at the same point then the vector sum of all these individual waves is called superposition of waves if Y1, Y2, Y3.............Yn
are the displacement vector of the individual waves then total sum is represent by

Y=Y1 +Y2 +Y3+..............+Yn

In the general life we see that the principle of superposition is found in all types of waves but according to the frequency, Wavelength, Amplitude it is classified in different types.

What is interference


When two or more waves travelling in the space the frequency and Amplitude are same and there are constant phase difference between the waves, when these waves superpose at the point in the space the resultant is called interference of light

The intensity of the light is not distributed uniformly in the space the distribution of light in the interference is non uniform type so we see different interference patter due to superposition of these waves when we get interference due to superposition then an alternative position the intensity of light is maximum and minimum the space where we get maximum intensity is called constructive interference and where we get minimum intensity is called destructive interference.

In the interference pattern an alternative position White and dark bands are located these bands are called fringe, with the help some laws we can find the width of fringes and intensity or frequency of light and we can also calculated how many fringes are make on the screen

Coherent waves


When two or more waves are travelling in the same direction and the Amplitude and frequency are same of waves and there are constant phase difference between waves then these waves are called coherent waves, But we can not produce coherent waves from different source of light if two property are same then third one is different

Coherent waves are not produce from different sources, the coherent waves are produce only from single source of light because in the single source of light all the waves are same nature so they follow the all condition for coherent waves to make the interference pattern in the different screen only single source of light is used

Condition for interference


When we take two or more source of light and these sources are producing the light waves but these waves are not coherent in nature if you not know what is coherent waves then we describe above the paragraph

(1) For interference the wave are coherent and phase are constant if the difference between phase is continuously change with time then we can not see the interference pattern alternatively

(2) The frequency and wavelength of waves should be same in nature and the light will be monochromatic

(3) The amplitude of waves are necessary will be same is the given waves these condition the we can find a very sharp and clean interference pattern on the screen.




Interference of waves | Definition | Fringes


State of Matter


solid, liquid, gas
State of matter | Types | solid liquid gas


Depending on the randomness of the particle shape, size, and state of existence there are three state of matter which are given as follow

1. Solid state
2. Liquid state
3. Gaseous state

Solid state


The state of material in which shape and size are fixed are called solid state of matter, in the solid state the particle of the matter is fixed at the point, the particle of matter are randomness called solid state material the whole solid state material may be further divided into two kinds

The solid state material may have either amorphous or crystalline nature which depend on the rate of cooling of melted solid state material

when the melted solid state material is cooling very fast then the arrangement of the particle inside the material is not fixed properly so the shape and size of the material in not to our desire level if we want to the crystal take their proper position and particle are fixed in their original position the we cooling the melted material at slowly and maintain its temperature

There are two types of solid state material which are given as below
(a) Crystalline material
(b) Non-Crystalline material

(a) Amorphous or non crystal material


Those solid state material in which atoms or molecule do not follow the periodically in their arrangement and also do not have sharp melting point called amorphous or non crystal solid material
Ex- Glass, Pitch

(b) Crystalline material


Those solid state material in which atoms or molecule follow the periodically in their arrangement and have sharp melting point called crystalline material
Ex- Quartz, calcite etc.


Liquid state


The state of material in which the size and shape of the matter is not fixed is called liquid state material when we take liquid in the pot, container and other things then it take their shape and size, in the liquid state of the matter the randomness of the material is more then solid state of matter,

Gaseous state


Those state of material in which the size and shape of material is not fixed is called gaseous state of the matter, in the gaseous state the distance between the particle is more than with respect to solid state and liquid state.



State of matter | Types | Solid Liquid Gas

Electromagnetic waves


In the present most of the mobile devices are working on electromagnetic waves to transfer their data from one position to another position, Electromagnetic waves are many types but in the mobile phone Radio waves are used which is the part of the electromagnetic waves, Radio waves are used over the large scale to communicated from one location to another location these waves are not only use for calling data, these electromagnetic wave are also use to make wireless devices, satellite communication, messaging and other type of data sharing.

Electromagnetic waves in cell phone | Types | Propagation


Magnetism definition | Field | Force


Magnetism definition | Field | Force
Magnetism definition | Field | Force


Magnetism


When we bring a needle in the magnetic field then this needle is always align in the same direction so we can say that a force is responsible to bring this needle in the particular direction, this force is Torque which is responsible this needle in the particular direction but on the large number of experiment it is shown that this needle align in north-south direction.

Magnetic field


The surrounding of the magnet where the needle feel a force and align in the particular direction is called magnetic field, the direction of the magnetic field is south to North, Our Earth act as a magnet and a magnetic field is exist around the earth which protect the earth from other astroid, the direction of the magnetic field on the earth is north direction to south direction.

Oersted’s Experiment


just as magnetic field exist around the magnet similarly a magnetic field exist around the wire when we passes current through it, when we placed a needle inside the non magnetic field then they align in the random direction and when we placed a needle in the magnetic field which is operated with the help of switch, then due to effect of magnetic field the needle stand in the north-south direction, when we flow current in the opposite direction then the direction of the field will be changed so we can say that due to flowing of charge in the wire a magnetic field is appear around the wire and this field impact on the other material which is placed in the range of the magnetic field

Right hand palm rule


if we spread our right hand like this then our thumb show the direction of flowing current and our spread finger directed toward the point where we want to determine the field the our pushing direction of hand is how the magnetic field

Magnetism definition | Field | Force


Electrostatics | Force | Field


Electric charge
Electrostatics | Force | Field

When we take a charge at a rest position and study the behaviour of this charge at rest position such as electric field intensity, electric force, electric potential then this is called electrostatics

Electric charge

When we rub some material on the wool then they attract some light weight material such as paper, grass etc Due to rubbing the material gets charge and show their effect on the other material under this condition the material is known as chargeable material

Positive and negative charges

In the material there are large number of charges are present if the material is losing the charge then the material is known as positive charge material and if the material is gaining the charge then the material is known as negative charge material.
If we have two materials and they are taken same nature of charge then they are repulsive nature and if one of them is different from other then they are attractive in nature in the simple language we can say that same charges are repul to each other and opposite nature charge are attract to each other.

Hypothesis of positive and negative charges

If a material is taken same amount of positive and negative charges then the material is neutral in nature and there is no any net charge on the material, if we remove some electron to the material then it will be positively charge and if we add some electron on the material then the material will be negatively charged When we rubbing glass rod on the silk the it will be positively charged so we can say that under this process the rod will losing the charge and silk gain some electron

Conservation of electric charge

when we rubbing two material then one will be positively charge and another will be negatively charged the amount of charge are distributed equal in both of the material under this condition the net charge on the system is equal to zero so we can say that we can not create the charge and not destroy the charge

Electrostatics | Force | Field


LASER


LASER
What is laser


The full form of laser is light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, It is a electronic device which is used to produce a source of monochromatic light LASER is very useful device so it is used various of industry such as science, medical, technology, communication.
The main aim to use LASER in various of industry is its mono chromaticity, this property of LASER which make this device different of other light source, But in the real no light source is absolute monochromatic, but laser is one of the best light device which produce nearly monochromatic light

Coherence of LASER

Coherence is the other important property of LASER light, the meaning of coherent is when two or more waves are same frequency travelled in same direction and same phase then this types of waves is called coherent waves, two different source does not produce coherent waves if two property are same the third one is different so we cannot produce coherent waves with the help of different source we can produce coherent wave only a single source, in the monochromatic LASER light most of the waves are coherent in nature so it increase the intensity of the light.


LASER


Test a capacitor and check capacitor in series

Test a capacitor and check capacitor in series
Test a capacitor and check capacitor in series


To testing a capacitor first of all we short circuit both of the terminal of the capacitor and next step will be doing To check the capacitor it is working condition we need a multimeter to check it first of all we set the maximum range of the capacitor and we connect +ve terminal of the capacitor in the +ve terminal of the multimeter and connect –ve terminal of the capacitor to the –ve terminal of the multimeter, when we connect the capacitor to the multimeter then its value is increasing at the maximum level and then will be one so this is indicate that the capacitor in on working condition and we used this capacitor on the different electronics circuit.

What is a capacitor?                                                                                                                                                              

Capacitor is a electronic component which is used to store energy for a sometime interval, the capacitor is used various of electronic circuit the main work of the capacitor in DC circuit is to block AC current which harm to the circuit the capacitor is made by using two conducting parallel plate and the mid of the parallel plate a non conducting material (Dielectric material) is places In the capacitor the dielectric material is made by glass, paper, plastic, rubber, ceramic.

Types of capacitor

There are mainly two types of capacitor

·         Polar capacitor
·         Non-polar capacitor


Polar capacitor

In the polar capacitor, +ve and –ve terminals are defined so we use this capacitor in the electronic circuit in our mind, the polar capacitor look in the motherboard or mobile boad as a black or yellow box, so we can easy to find it to see this in the yellow box a red line is plotted this indicate that there is positive terminal of the capacitor but in the black colure capacitor a white line is plotted so this is also show that it is a positive terminal .

Non-polar capacitor

In the non-polar capacitor +ve and –ve terminal are not defined so we connect any side of the non polar capacitor on the circuit the non-polarised capacitor are used mainly in the circuit for coupling, decoupling, compensation, feedback and oscillation, the non polarised capacitor used mainly pure AC circuit, this capacitor is used to filtering high frequency waves.




Test a capacitor and check capacitor in series


What is Semiconductor and definition?


Definition of semiconductor
What is Semiconductor and definition


There are large number of material which conductivity lies between metal and insulator these material are known as semiconductor, there are many uses of semiconductor material, this material is used over the large scale to make electronics device components, the semiconductor material are made with germanium, silicon etc.

At the absolute Zero temperature this material is work as insulator, the conductivity of the semiconductor material is increases by adding some material such as Aluminium, silver etc when we adding impurity on the semiconductor material then this process is called Doping, After the adding of impurity in the semiconductor material the conductivity of the material is lies between insulator and metal, generally semiconductor material are defined on the resistivity of the material.

Properties of semiconductor material

·         The conductivity of the semiconductor material is more than insulator and less than metal
·         The resistivity of the semiconductor material is less than insulator but more than metal
·         The conductivity of the semiconductor material is increases with increasing of its temperature and festivity is decreases with increasing of temperature
·         When a impurity is adding in pure semiconductor the its conductivity is changes

Types of semiconductor

There are mainly two types of semiconductor

(a)    Intrinsic semiconductor

(b)   Extrinsic semiconductor
 

(a)  Intrinsic semiconductor

Those types of semiconductor material which have no any impurity then this type of material is called intrinsic semiconductor, the pure form of Germanium, silicon are called intrinsic semiconductor material, In the instinct semiconductor material the atoms are strongly bounded and there are no any free of electrons which move in the lattice so the instinct semiconductor material is not conductive nature, germanium are silicon is widely used for making semiconductor material and their valance shell contain four electron so in the lattice of the germanium there are no any free of electron, all the electron are strongly bounded their neighbour atoms
when we increase the temperature of the instinct semiconductor material the their some covalent bonds are broken so the conductivity of the instinct semiconductor material is increases in increasing of the temperature when we remove one electron from instinct semiconductor material then there will be an empty space appear at this space, This space is called hole and this hole work as positive charge, when we applied an electric field across the material then this hole travelled toward the negative terminal, in the instinct semiconductor material the concentration of holes and electron are same.

(b) Extrinsic semiconductor

When we add impurity on intrinsic semiconductor material  then this type of material is called extrinsic semiconductor, this material is more conductive than intrinsic semiconductor material because there are free electron and holes are present in this material so conductivity is increases of this material if we adding impurity on the intrinsic semiconductor then either holes are increase either electrons are increases in the material this is depending on the adding material, if we adding three valance shell electron on the instinct semiconductor then the holes are increases in the material and if we adding five valance shell electron in the instinct semiconductor material then holes are increases in the material so there are two type of extrinsic semiconductor
·         n-type semiconductor
·         p-type semiconductor
  




What is Semiconductor and definition


P-N Junction Diode


P-N Junction Diode | Zener Diode
P-N Junction Diode | Zener Diode


When a p-type semiconductor is connected with n-type semiconductor then the jointed point is called is p-n junction and the resultant system is called P-N junction Diode, when p-type semiconductor is jointed to n-type semiconductor the deplaction layer is formed between the junction.

In the p-n junction diode the p-region is contain holes which act as positive charge carrier but n-region contain electron which act as negative charge carrier when p-n junction in forward bias (p-region connected with +ve terminal of battery and n-region connected with -ve terminal of battery) condition then the holes and electron are travelling towards the junction and combined to each other at the junction

Biasing in P-N junction Diode


In the forward bias condition the width of the depletion layer is decreases because the forward bias condition help the charge carrier travelled towards the junction, so the width of depletion layer is decreases in the forward bias condition but in the reverse bias condition the width of the depletion layer is increases because in this condition the charge carrier travelled opposite the junction so under this condition the width of the depletion layer is increase in forward bias condition

Zener Diode


Zener diode is used as for a special purpose this diode is operate in the reverse bias condition when we increase reverse voltage then the current is slightly increases but at the particular voltage they provide rent in this situation the zener is break and it is called zener breackdown the zener diode is provide very large current at a particular reverse voltage.

Zener breackdown


In the zener diode the p-type region and n-type region are highly doped so when we applied reverse voltage then they provide corresponding current, in the zenor diode the breckdown is called zenor breckdown, the zenor breackdown is based on tunneling phenomenon

In the reverse bias condition the conduction band of p-region aligned with n-region so the minority charge carrier of p region easilly jump in the n-region this process is called tunneling






P-N Junction Diode | Zener Diode