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Showing posts with label cyber security. Show all posts
Showing posts with label cyber security. Show all posts

System administrator


If we have multiple servers than to communicate with each server a common system requires this system is called system administrator, the system administrator control all the process which is doing inside the device such as app installing, IP changer, File transferring and another process

System administrator and configuration management tool
System administrator


All the process inside the computer is controlled by the system administrator but if the number of servers is more and there are large no of the process are running inside the device the system administrator are not able to handle all this process and server communication

If we work with the limited of servers we can easily Handel all the process with the help of system administrator and we can add more system administrator to doing all this limited process but if the number of the process is more than 500+ the local administrator is not able the run these process

Working of the system administrator


There are some process which is doing by the system the administrator is given as below

(1) App installing


When we install an app on the computer then the system administrator check all requirements which are required to run this application on the computer, if any files are missing on the device such as driver, launcher and other files then the app are not properly run on the computer, so to run this application on the PC first of all check which file is missing on the computer after finding it we install these files on the PC and run this app on the PC

(2) IP changing


When two or more devices are communicating with each other with the help of the internet then an address is required to send or receive the file on their destination these address is called IP address the IP address of the device is unique, but if some cases when we transferring od important data to another person and we would not want to share our IP with another person then we can change it, the changing of IP address are the different process

(3) System manager


The system administrator also checks the file transferring and operating system running process if some files are corrupted then it sends as a message to fix it some of the problems are easily fixed with the help of system tool

Configuration management tool


If we have a large number of computer and these computers are connected to a common server then to handle all the process and management of this computer a tool is required this tool is called configuration management tool

The system administrator of the computer can handle only the limited of the process so it is not used over the large scale but Configuration management tool of the server handle a large number of process of the computer, if we change some process inside the device such as app installation, deletion, updating, creating then all these processes we can do it with the help of configuration a management tool, the configuration management tool updating all the computers which are connected to this server in some minutes but when we do this work manually on the computers then it takes more time but configuration management tool helps us to update and create all the computer with the help of single code
Types of configuration management tool

There are mainly two types of Configuration management tool which are given as below
(a) Push-Based
(b) Pull-Based

(a) Push-Base


The push-base Configuration management tool upgrade all the computers with the help of single code if some of the computers are pre upgraded then it does not upgrade that computers, the upgrading process take few minutes, if the operating system and other software are corrupted all the computers then with the help of Configuration management tool we can re-upgrade all the computer with one single code

If we want to upgrade some specific computer then we upload the updated file on the git-hub, after this process a notification are going to the specific computer and if that computer user are want to upgrade that the computer than the can do it
Ex- Ansible, Salt-stack

(b) Pull-Based


That computer which is connected with the help of Pull-based management tool is upgraded to itself if any upgrade is found the the server than it takes the upgraded file and upgrades all its software so in this management tool computers are able to upgrade itself for some time interval

The pull base tool is easy to use and if we add some new devices with the server then there are no impact on another computer, there are another advantage of this system if we have added an upgraded computer to this system to the given network then no impact on another system every computer are upgraded to itself to this management tool so the human effort is reduces
Ex- CHEF, Puppet






System administrator and configuration management tool


The OSI model seven layer of computer networking

Networking 7 layer
Networking 7 layer


The full form of OSI model is open system  interconnection it is a process which are used to send data or receive the data from one place to another place, there are seven layers in the OSI model which help us to send or receive the data properly

When the data transfer from one point to another point then these data go to their destination to follow some rules, these rules are OSI model rules and universally accepted the development of the OSI model is being ISO (Internation system organization) in 1976

The OSI model plays a very important role in networking, Telecom industry and other places, in the OSI model every process are pre-define so we can easily see that what happen next, the working process of the OSI model is being stepped by step

Seven-layer of computer networking


The seven-layer of the OSI model is arranged according to the sender or receiver if we send the file then the order is different and when we receive the file than the order of the layer is different

Layers according to sender                             Layers according to receiver

Application layer                                                                     Physical layer
Presentation layer                                                                    Data link-layer
Session layer                                                                            Network layer
Transport layer                                                                        Transport layer
Network layer                                                                          Session layer                                     
Datalink layer                                                                          Presentation layer
Physical layer                                                                          Application layer

(1) Application layer


The application layer is one of the most important layers of the OSI model because all the services and feature of the given program and file are used with the help of the application, so this is the most important layer in the networking because without the application we can not use their services and not see their interface.

Most of the social media platform like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram provide their services with the help of the application, Application is a medium which helps us to use the services and feature in networking so we can not imagine the OSI model without the application layer.

(2) Presentation layer


This is another most important layer under the OSI model because when we send data from one position to another position then to provide the security of this data we modify this data, Before the sending of the data we encrypt this data so not any third party can read this data, this data is decrypted only the key which has known only sender and receiver so the encryption of the data provides security to the data.

The encryption data is called ciphertext and the cipher text of the different type of data is different, Before the sending of this data we compress this data so the size of data is reduced and it reaches their destination in the less time, sometimes we need to change the data language so we can  convert the language of this data during the presentation layer.

(3) Session layer


When data goes to one place to another through the wire or wireless than to establish a connection between two computer session layer is used, when data is transfer to another computer then this layer analyzes the data transferring and make the connection stable this layer is also checked how many data send and receive by the computers.

(4) Transport layer


This layer plays a very important role during the transmission of data, under this section the given data is divided into the different segments and each segment have their own identity and when this segment data reach their destination then they are reassembled and make a single file.

Transmission layer also controls the connection between two or more computer, this layer is responsible to check the errors during the data transmission when we transfer file then it controls the rate of data transferring and make it stable, during the transmission of data there are many the protocol is taken in use such as TCP/UDP.

(5) Network layer


After the addressing of each segment of the give data, this data are available to send from one point to another point when we send this data we have need their address because without the receiver address this data not reach their destination, in the networking the address of each device are called IP (Internet Protocol) address.

We can not send or receive data without the IP addresses in the networking each device have their own IP address and this is unique this the layer is also chek the perfect path to send this data their destination, the router is working on this layer.

(6) Datalink layer


The give data of the user in the form of plain text which are easy to read but when we send it then they converted into ciphertext which are not understandable so no any third party can miss using our data so under this layer, we provided the security of our data to cover (framing) it, this layer also controls the rate of data flowing.

(7) Physical layer


This layer establishes the connection between the two connecting medium which is connected with each other with the help of wire or wireless this layer converts the received data into the bit from because when we receive the data then they are into ciphertext which is nor understandable so the conversation is necessary.

Under the physical layer, the transmission is established between the computers with the help of some modes which are given below.

(a) Simplex mode


Under the simplex mode, the data are transferring only one side, in the simplex mode one device work as sender only and another is work as receiver only.

(b) Half-duplex mode


Under the half-duplex mode, the device is work as sender and receiver but at the time it works as sender and another time it works as receiver so this communication is called half-duplex because either user send the message or receive the message at the time.

The Woki Toki is the example of half-duplex because at the time either we send the data or receive the data.

(c) Full duplex mode


During the full-duplex mode the device is work as a sender or the receiver at the time, the mobile phone is the example of the full-duplex because at the time we send and receive data with the help of mobile



               


7 layer of networrking

Cyber security news
Cyber security



There are a large number of data is transferred through the internet so we need a security system which saves our data from a hacker, these a person which save our data from hackers and improve the cybersecurity of our the system is called analyst

The salary of the cybersecurity analyst depends on their qualification and on their skill but according to the expert the salary of the cybersecurity analyses are lies between 5-6 lack

Cybersecurity jobs


There are many different types of jobs that are available in the cybersecurity but in this article, we talk about only those jobs which are highly requirements and the salary of these jobs are high, most of the person prefer these jobs, in the below of the article we explain some jobs category in the cybersecurity so according to your interest you can choose anyone

Information security analyst


If you want to make an information security analyst of any the company then, first of all, you have a bachelor degree in computer science, under this job, you have to do to analyze the network of the company and provide the security of all the system the salary of the security analyst is 5-6 lack
 There are many hackers who wanted to steal to private data of the company and use this information for our profit so to secure our networking system we need a person which provided security to our networking these people are a security analyst which prevent the hacker and secure our personal data

Software security engineering


To make a software security engineer in any company first of all we need a bachelor degree in computer science, software engineering, etc the salary of the software security engineering is 7-8 lack
Under this job, we have done to provide the development of software because when we use computers for a long time there are many bugs and other malware are installed so to solve this problem we need software so we can just create and solve this problem easily

We can do another work in the software security engineering such as software planning, if we want to improve our services then we take up update day today so we need to plan the software and according to the requirement we just create and take in use to secure our system

Another part of the software security engineering is development of the software because without the software we can to analyze the data of the company and not generate the reports to improve our services so day to day we need some new programs and software to analyze the data because if the quantity of the data is more than it is not handled by the people so we need software the developer which make software and provide the security to our system

Chief information security officer (CISO)


If we select for the post of CISO we have to do many work in the job which is discussed as below, for this job we need a qualification which is a Bachelor degree from computer science, cybersecurity degree and the master degree in computer science

There are many qualifications that are required to make a CISO, we can not gain this CISO job directly, after working on many posts in the company we can promote to this job in the company for this job the IT security information is required compulsory, the salary of this job lies 12-80 lack.

Security Architect


This job is one of the most important jobs in any networking world because these people find the weakness of the network and give their solution, to check the security of the system this security architect attack on the system legally and find the holes in the system

In the networking, not any system which is fully anti-hack but these security Architects make the system is nearly unhackable but in the reality no any system exist which are full anti-hack
If we want to make a security architect then there are some qualification is required which is a bachelor degree in computer science, master degree compulsory in the cybersecurity or computer science the salary are provided for this job is 15-20 lack

After the joining of this job, there are many works are doing such as how to use a VPN for our security and how to use a firewall to protect our system

Penetration Tester


This is also a type of security architect the working process of both people are nearly the same, in the penetration tester jobs people find to system weakness and find their best solution, to doing this work a group of people is required which working on a different topic on this work to analyze the all system the salary of this job is 5-10 lack and the qualification are required master in computer science






Cybersecurity Analyst salary and job salary