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Showing posts with label Technology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Technology. Show all posts

Chrome History Delete

Google Chrome
Google Chrome

The history, cookies, and caches deletion process in the PC or mobile is different first of all we talk about the history deletion on the mobile, for the delete of all history in the chrome browser we click on the three dots here we see that History after a click on it we see the option to clear history.

To delete History, cookies data, and cache data from the PC first of all click on the three dots after this process go to the setting here we see all the option such as clear history, clear caches, and cookies

All member of Google Stadia subedit has created an iOS  browser that uses smart and hard workarounds to allow users to play Stadia games on the iPhone.

Although Apple released the rules of the gaming app in early September, it is still banned from apps from the cloud.

However, Redditors in the Stadia subreddit have been working with various engineers. On Monday, Redditor Zachary Knox released an existing solution in the App Store.

The solution is an iOS web browser called "Stadium" with an agent switch and game control concept. Users download the app, set up their user agent on a Mac device, and log in to their Google account Stogie. From there, they can play Stadia games on an iOS device with full controller support.

According to Knox, the workaround will support any of the controls of MFi, Xbox One S, and DualShock 4 - but not the official control of Stadia. While Google does not appear to support custom agents, Knox recommends using Authenticate view login. You add that the browser has no tracking code or ads.

It is a patchwork solution, Creditors seem to suggest that it is an easy  way to play Stadia games on the iPhone or iPad devices.

 Forum Browser requires an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch running iOS 14 or later.

Of course, there is a good chance that Apple will remove the web browser from the App Store, even if it comments on its description in reference to Google Stadia. At least, in this case, Google seems to be more likely to retaliate than Apple.

Apple's current guidelines have received criticism from game developers such as Microsoft, who accuse technology giant Cupertino of treating gaming applications "differently.

While Apple's release restrictions allow for "catalog" apps that allow users to subscribe and search for games, the guidelines still indicate that each game needs its own App Store listing. That's why services like Apple Arcade - following the guidelines - are allowed, and why Xbox Game Pass and google Stadia are not allowed.

Microsoft has stated that the restrictions still apply to "bad experiences." A Seattle tech official still says he is committed to finding a way to bring the Xbox Game Pass to the iPhone.

There seem to be ways around Apple's game app guidelines. Amazon, for example, has announced that its upcoming Luna cloud gaming app will arrive on Mac, iPhone, and iPad. This service is browser-based and uses web applications to stream.

In a new post on the Microsoft Edge blog, Prime Minister Kim Denny explained how the company has made it faster and more efficient in the past few months. To help users perform their tasks faster, the team released Profile-Guided Optimizations (PGO's) on the Edge 81 Stable Channel and Link-Time Optimizations (LTOs) on Edge 83 back in March.

PGO's prioritize the most important parts of the code, while LTOs increase memory usage. These two methods apparently improved Edge speed by 13 percent compared to previous versions, based on the Speedometer 2.0 bench. Microsoft has also introduced the development of browser animation and has improved the look, feel, and feel of your touch typically back in April. Denny says those changes made Edge feel smoother and more responsive.

Finally, Microsoft has reduced Edge size by half over the past year so that it doesn't take up too much storage on your device.

Microsoft's Edge browser recently surpassed Firefox as one of Chrome's most popular alternatives, according to NetMarketshare statistics. Chrome still has a lion's share of the market with more than 70 percent share, and Firefox is not far behind, but Microsoft's rival has been gaining less popularity.

How to delete Chrome History

Software Widgets 

Software Widgets
Software Widgets

IOS fourteen Home Screen: would like some fun widgets? Inspect this app Fantastic - AN app that lets folks management their waterproof and iOS calendars - recently free twelve new customizable Software Widgets that may be accustomed customize iOS fourteen home screens 9to5 the corporate says regarding its new widgets for Mac.

Fantastic's twelve widgets enable users to customize their iOS home screen to feature and match their favorite widgets. There area unit tiny widgets to indicate the date or next forthcoming event or work, medium widgets to indicate additional info or monthly calendars and huge widgets that give AN in-depth agenda.

The app is native to use Software Widgets

Some options may be unfastened victimization Payments Don't expect too several stunning or weird fun widgets the widgets area unit designed as you'd expect from Fantastic and that we love the choice to travel straight to conferences. don't hunt for obscure zoom invites in your inbox.

More concepts on social media Software Widgets

Apple free the new iOS fourteen to any or all iPhone users last week and iPhone users before long started sharing concepts on social media.

Stronger and easier on iOS fourteen," aforesaid Craig Federico, Apple's senior vice-chairman. President of computer code Engineering.

iOS 14: Apple is building an essentially completely different future for computer code
iOS fourteen isn't neutral Software Widgets.

It provides privileges to some varieties of applications and doesn't provide preference to others in order that what quite applications area unit productive and that they area unit doubtless to fail. in line with the previous head of Google's iOS app.

Software Widgets fourteen is Apple's latest mobile software for the iPhone and iPad.

If you see the social crisis on Netflix, iOS fourteen can inevitably ring the bell. Nick Sir Jack Hobbs told American state in a very recent technical school 1st podcast episode that as Apple builds essentially completely different future for computer code within the new mobile software, it'll cause targeted developers to fail and service-oriented developers to succeed.

Hobbs is that the former head of Google's iOS app and presently CEO of the bill, that captures subscription news service.

When you check out iOS fourteen, you'll see that Apple isn't neutral on the question of wherever technology Software Widgets can get in the long run," Sir Jack Hobbs aforesaid.

Watch the total interview with Nick Hobby

To understand however iOS fourteen is dynamical the look of mobile computing, you would like to appear at however apps have worked in previous versions.

For over a decade, mobile app publishers have struggled to put in their apps. putting in means that they currently have a tiny low piece of realty "on a 3-foot device", an extremely customized laptop seldom found quite 3 feet from your body. From that time on, they'll badge you for taking care of them: throw push notifications to your phone and add some red numbers within the higher corner of their app icons to allow you to recognize one thing is missing. Continuous goal: to encourage you to open the app, pay less time, communicate with less content, and (possibly) see fewer ads.

I think iOS fourteen is completely different

By default, all apps area unit enclosed in what they decision a 'library', that is AN item, you'll hunt for," Sir Jack Hobbs aforesaid, however, as a developer, you would like to urge that position on the house screen More significantly, Apple has created and prioritized widgets.

Widgets give snippets of the app's practicality and knowledge while not truly having to stress regarding launching the app Software Widgets they need the chance to visualize what proportion you're victimization the app or to scale back that point heaps.

An example of this is often the Apple app photos that I seldom use. If I would like an image, it has always recent, and typically comes from the camera app while not going into full photograph expertise. Now, I'm a victimization photograph, that shows the most effective chosen photos from pictures price over a decade. On the house screen, it's like a shot helpful and intriguing and generally, I would like to faucet into the total photograph app and see additional.

John Cottier

Another example activity, another Apple app, shows what proportion exercise you probably did in a very day. The contraption confirmed everything i would like on the house screen; I don't ought to press the app to visualize additional Hobbs says this is often excellent for many apps that area unit presently massive winners

People United Nations agency provide real utilities daily just like the iOS fourteen winners," Sir Jack Hobbs aforesaid. Software Widgets People United Nations agency try to form cash by amusive you and merchandising that vision to some other person, this is often not the long run that Apple needs to make.

It does not take a genius to figure out who is targeting an operating system that is preferred by attentive marketers. IOS 14 is not aimed at Apple's lunatics and collaborators like Facebook. For example, Google is another crazy and collaborative, but widgets compatible with Google. I've never
touched the automated Google app now, but on my home screen Google Widget, traditional Google text search, Google Lens for visual search, and voice search are just a tap away.

It is powerful.

It prioritizes subscription services, Hobbs thinks. Because you don’t have to notice the subscription services every second. They do not need to store page views or time in the app, so they can show more ads In other words, widgets are an attempt to block a particular type of mobile software

This is a good map for subscription-based businesses, Software Widgets Hobbs said of widgets will use it more and more. If you like it even more, in the end, since it is this premium service, we will start charging you for in-app purchases or similar.

Eight years ago Apple invented and launched the first modern mobile app store, and when it launched, apps received huge sums of money. Some apps have native apps - weather and news - but apps are usually 99 0.99 or 99 1.99. A few years have passed quickly for the evolution of applications, and the standards are very flexible for free.

There are two types of free births

This is a kind of free genius, if you are interested the traders of the surveillance capitalism will notice. Facebook, Reddit and YouTube in the world. Like most successful games, Freemium is another type of free product: free, easy to install, free to play, but it's expensive if you want to get better and faster. As Hobbs said ... games that pay you out of frustration.

iOS 14 widgets

John Cottier

Google's Product Manager Hobbs for the iPhone app during the transition from iOS 6 to iOS 7. The Apple software change had a huge financial impact on Google.

At Google, we basically believe that more searches are better, right? When people are looking for more, it's a happier user ... When they redesigned iOS 7 and introduced a new look for Safari, the traffic dropped off a hill ... it's like a huge regression graph.

So, it's interesting to see what iOS 14 does for the future of apps: which apps succeed and which apps fail.

While there is still room to compete with all apps and convince people that their time is worth it, Apple's changes will benefit a wide variety of apps equally.

For Hobbs, removing apps and adding widgets from the home screen - as well as new privacy-centric changes to iOS 14 - means less advertising-money-making services.

It's good for the hub's new launch based on the subscription and he thinks it's good for him personally as an iPhone owner. As CEO, he strives to make his company successful. As a human being, he strives to live his life without being influenced by the things that are spreading on social media, the political provocative machines around us in the digital environment and the general negativity and stress caused by excessive digital consumption.

There are a lot of them, they are very intelligent, they are very good at what they do, and spending a lot of time on Facebook is a lot of their job, ”Hobbs told me.

Software Widgets New Apple mobile operating systems will be adapted very quickly. It will be interesting to see if Hobbes' predictions come true and if Apple's new operating system will save us Or protect us from Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and TickTalk.

It's worth noting that Apple makes money on advertising - making services such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Apple makes money on subscription services Software Widgets At the very least, they follow Apple Store guidelines when using Apple's paid services.

Software Widgets free download for windows

What is computer processor definition | Types and core in processor
Computer processor

What is the computer processor?

A processor is a hardware device which calculates a large number of calculation and give their result to the user, in the other word a process is an electronic device which responds when we give them instruction, this processor is looks like a chip.

The processor of the computer is also called CPU (Central processing unit), because this on one of the most important parts of the complete CPU, we cannot imagine the computer without the CPU, because in the absence of CPU computers is not able to give responses to the user.

The processor in the mobile, tablets, and other small devices are called the microprocessor, this microprocessor is very small in size, in the computer processor is not only responsible for the process of instruction, there are other elements such as Hard drive are also responsible for the processing

But the Hard drives process very small instruction, most of the processing work is doing by the main processor due to the working of this microprocessor this is called the CPU of the device, this is also called the brain of the device, Intel and AMD  are two main company which makes the processor of the computer and microprocessor of the mobile.

Elements of the Processor/Microprocessor

(a) Arithmetical and logical unit (ALU)

 ALU is the part of the processor and the working procedure of the ALU are two types
Arithmetical unit:-Under this section ALU perform basic function like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division.

Logical unit:-Logical unit of the processor is also performs some basic operations such as the comparison between two or more numbers such that the number is greater or less than another number.

(b) Floating point unit

The floating-point is also the part of the processor this unit also process the instruction but the speed of this unit is fast than ALU, the FPU of the processor performs the operation such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Square root, Trigonometric values, exponential values and perform other operations.

(c) Control unit

The Control Unit of the processor/CPU is similar to the teacher in the class, just as teacher control in all the class during the teaching similarly Control unit of the processor control all the activities of the computer it, work as a supervisor, it fetches all the instruction from the RAM and control their execution.

(d) Resistor in the Processor

This is also the main part of the CPU, because when we fetch any instruction from the memory and execute this instruction then this resistor holds the instruction.

Operation inside the Processor

There are many types of operation are executed inside the processor, Due to this execution our work may be completed this operation is discuss in below.

Fetch:-It is a process where processor collects data from the memory and execute this data according to the given condition

Decode:-It is the operation of the processor where digital data converted into the plain text (Readable language) because inside the computer all the data stay in the form of the binary number so to make it readable we use decode processing.

Execute:-This is the last operation of the processor, at this state all the instruction come in the readable form and we can easily understand it, in this process all the given instruction be solved and give their final result.

What is the Core of the processor?

The core of the process is equal to the number of CPU inside the processor, from the above article we explain that the processor of the computer is a hardware chip and in this chip made by many components such as ALU, FPU, Control unit, resistor these four component is the main part of the processor and this four-component stay inside the process.

The combination of the above four components make a CPU and this single CPU is called a single-core processor and if we add a second CPU inside the processor then the processor is called a dual-core processor.

If we add four CPU inside the processor then it is called a quad-core processor and if we add eight CPU inside the processor then it is called the Octa-core processor.


What is computer processor definition | Types and core in processor

Android (Operating system)

Android is an operating system which is made for mobile, tablets, etc, it is a modified operating system of the Linux operating system, this the operating system is written in java, c/c++ and other languages, this the operating system is available in 100+ languages, in the present time this operating system is used in smartphone, TV, computers, smartwatches, etc

Is android an operating system

Google bought the android in 2007 and the first android device launched in 2008 in the present time the latest android version is android 10 which is launched on 3 September 2019 there are many devices which work on the android operating system such as Android TV, smartphone, watches etc

Android operating the system is a worldwide famous operating system this OS is widely used in mobile, tablets, etc there are million of the user which used android operating system in their mobile, in the google app store most of the apps work on the Android OS

Feature of the Android operating system

in the android devises the interface between user and device is being on the help of input devices, touch, Joysticks, and other devices in the android there are many software and function which is used to improve the user experience on the device this feature are an accelerometer, proximity, gyroscopes, these function are used in android to improve android device capability

Android home screen is made with many apps and widgets, the android apps help us to do our personal work and entertainment but widgets help us to provide the latest update such as weather, live news auto-updating, in the android devices we can use third-party apps to allow such condition

The top of the screen is called status bare where we can see that the network information, connectivity any many features about the phone when we pull down the status bar then the many apps and icon are shown which provide information about it

Android application

in the smartphones there are much application is pre-installed but with the help of google app store we can install more application which we required these applications to help us to make our work fast and save our time, android application improve the device performance and make it easy to use, android application are made with programming languages such as java, c/c++, etc

Android Management

Android the operating system is made for fewer uses of resources and gives better the result, this operating system used less battery and CPU and provide batter result, if the installed application is not in use then the android manager has closed the application and battery and CPU is less consume, if the application is in used then the android manager provide memory and other resources

Development of android

The android is developed by the google the latest version of Android 10, Google continuously upgrade android development android is an open source and it is customizable nature large number application and software supported android operating system the installation process of android is easy the android hardware platform is ARM which is the supported latest version of android os

Is android an operating system

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain technology developer | Definition | Wallet

Blockchain is a technology which divides the digital data into a large number of parts and each part are called a block, and the combination of all the block is called Blockchain technology, in the Blockchain technology all the data on the blocks stays in the encrypted form (Not directly readable) so  the security of our digital data is increasing.

Blockchain technology is invented by the people of the group Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, this technology is used on that time to secure our the banking system and payment gateway but at the present time the range of the Blockchain is increase so this technology are uses another sector to provided on their network system.

Properties of Blockchain technology

There are many properties of the Blockchain technology which are discuss in below
The Blockchain technology is working on the basis of peer to peer networking where many computers (10-12 computers) are connected to each other with the help of Local area network (LAN) and share their data to do work fast.

In the peer to peer networking, each computer are independent so if a particular computer is not working then there will be no effect to the other computer, in the peer to peer networking the work is distributed to all these computers so our work completed very little time.

In the Blockchain technology, computers are independent of each other so we can easily any computer to another so the maintenance and cost of this technology are reduces with respect to another technology.

In this technology, our data are save in the encrypted form so no third party can use this data this technology the security level of our personal data.

Disadvantages of Blockchain technology

In this technology, all the computers are not connected to the central server so we cannot fully control this technology because all the devices and computers are independent

All the digital data are stored in the encrypted form in the different block so to take its backup is not easy to process if some reason our data may be lost than we can to recover it fast

Uses of Blockchain technology

At the present time, this technology is used in different sector due to its property, but we see that most of the uses of this technology in the Banking system and transaction, Blockchain is a very useful technology for the banking system because all the banks want that it’s all internal digital data in the form of the encrypted form so they use Blockchain technology

This Blockchain technology provided peer to peer networking and data encryption which is very useful for the banking system and online the transaction, In the online transaction all the data goes to one point to another point in the encrypted form so the security our data is increasing and no, any third party can interfere on it

Structure of Blockchain technology

Centralize internet system

Centralize internet system is a technology where we can connect all the device with the help of a central computer and provided our services to the user with the help of the internet suppose we open an application then after this process, this app connects to their server and provide their services with the help of the internet, similarly when we open any website then they give us information with the help of heir server.

In the centralize internet system all the device are connected to the central computer so our all data can be access with this central computer so the security of our data is not high in the centralize internet system, our personal data such as Email, Phone number, Debit or Credit card information on the central server so if any hacker a steal this private data with the central computer.

If the server  of the central internet system may be corrupted or destroyed then all the devices are not communicated to each other and share their information this is one of the most dangerous situation of the centralized internet system.

Decentralize internet system

Decentralize is also a technology where all the devices are connected to each other without any server, in the decentralized internet system peer-to-peer networking system is used which connect to the device without any server.

In the decentralized internet system, computer are directly connected to each other without any server so the transmission between computers are fast, in this technology we do not face any problem which is related to the server such as Server crash, Hacking, Data lost, etc.

In the decentralized internet system our data in the encrypted form so it is not directly understandable, the security of this technology is more than a centralized internet system, in this technology our all data is divided into many parts so not any hacker can access all this information with the central computer.

There is much property of decentralizing the internet system but it has also some disadvantages,          in this technology there are large number of calculation are required which are possible on the high computer, Lower devices are not supported this technology, so we can not use this technology over the large scale at the present time.

This technology are consume many resources so this is another reason we do not use at the present time but in the future we after the development of some new technology we can use this technology over a large scale.

Blockchain technology developer | Definition | Wallet

The electric car charging cost

Cost to charge electric car
The electric car charging cost

The electricity consumption of the different car is different so it is the not fix value but on the basis of the different experiment it was found that the cost of the charge car for the 1 miles (1.6 Km) is 0.04 dollar, this cost is the average value so it not fix all the time, But this cost is more effective with respect to another type of fuel on the cars.

The electric cars are environmentally friendly and not produce pollution so most of the people at the present time replace Petrol/Diesel car with electric cars, the maintenance of electric cars are less costly but other cars are most costly so in the future, we see that all the people prefer electric cars and other vehicles.

How to electric cars works

The working procedure of electric cars are similar to the ordinary cars but in the electric cars we use too high capacity motors to give power on the wheel, but in the ordinary cars to give the power on the wheel we use petrol/Diesel Engine, these engines are more powerful than electric car but this engine produce pollution which is not environment friendly.

Electric Charge

Electric a charge is the physical property of the matter which are produced inside the matter, When this charge is placed in the electric field then it feels a force which is called electric force, the electric force is depended on the quantity of the charge, the charge on the matter is two types which are given as below.

Positive charge

When we remove an electron from the outer cell of the atom then it will be positively charge and this positive charge move opposite to the electric field.

Negative charge

When we add an electron on the outer cell of the atom then it will be negatively charged and this charge moves toward the electric field direction.

Cost to charge electric car

What is the sensor?

A sensor is a switching device which detects the object and send the information related to that object to the electronic device, and the second electronic device analyzes the receive data and do response according to the user requirement.


The sensor is not working alone, a sensor always used with another electronic device, Sensor are used in a large amount of the electronic device such as Touch mobile, Automatic switches, Brightness control and another electronic device, the sensor is also used in the application to give the better experience of the user.

The sensor is also used to find the temperature of the object, pressure and rate of flow of the different types of liquid material those the sensor which measure the temperature, pressure, and flow rate of liquid are called MARG sensor the full form of MARG is magnetic, angular rate, and gravity.

Application of sensor

The sensor is widely used in electronic devices to improve the quality and feature of that product the sensor are made according to their uses nowadays sensor are used in every field such as Robotics, Manufacturing, Mobile application/Software, Medicine, Aerospace, Cars, and other industry, there is a wide range of the sensor which use to find the chemical and the physical property of the material.

The sensitivity of the sensor we can configure and make it sensitivity for our requirements when the input data is changing the output data are also change according to the sensor measure the viscosity of fluid, vibration, and pH of the fluids.

The sensitivity of the sensor shows how much output changes when input changes to understand the sensitivity we can take an example, when the mercury of the thermometer moves the 1 cm then the temperature difference is being 1 degree Celsius, then with the help of this the result we can say that  it follows the liner property.

Property of the sensor

There are many properties of the sensor which are discussed as below

The sensitivity of the sensor we can configure and the output of the sensor we can set to our requirements so this is one of the most important properties of the sensor, at the present time we can make the sensor to our requirements and improve the quality and feature of our product

The sensor senses only those object which we want to detect, this the sensor is insensitive to other object so this is another most important property of the sensor

The sensor is not influenced by the measured property so the quality of the object is same before and after the sense of the object

Sensor Deviation                

The output of the sensor always a fixed value some time it reaches its maximum value and some time is going to its minimum value.

The sensitivity of the sensor depends on the input and output signal if the sensitivity of the sensor does not work to our condition then this is called sensor error and we find this error with the help of the sensitivity graph, because the sensitivity graph of the sensor is liner so if any error occurs then it shows on the graph.

If the output signals of the sensor changes slowly then this the problem we face due to the long term use of the sensor, if we use the sensor for a long time then it physical property changes this is called drift.

Definition of sensor uses and application

Internet of things

The internet of things is a platform where all the devices such as mobile, software, sensor, TV, fan, and other electronic devices are connected to each other with the help of internet and transfer their data to each other for a better experience for the user.

What internet of things definition and example
Internet of things (IoT)

The development of the 5G internet services are very fast so in the future, we see that most of our surrounding devices are the part of IOT because it does our work fast and saves our time, the development of the IoT at the present time is the initial state.

Working of the IoT services

The IoT services are based on the internet, all the devices of the IoT platform is interned base so there is a specific IP address of each the device in the IoT platform, this IP address helps us to control that device to our rules and regulations.

The IoT services are used to make the device automatic so most of the work is completed without any human effort this is to improve our productivity and save our time, in the future most of the devices are working on internet-based so it improves the structure of the IoT model.

The given IoT services help us to join different types of technology, with the help of internet service, we can easily control most of the IoT  services device with our mobile phone and maintain their all services with one click this IOT service converge most of the different services.

History of IoT

The IoT platform is not the latest technology we see the services of the IoT platform in the past time, In 1982 a Coca-Cola vending the machine is developed by the Carnegie Mellon University which based on the internet, after using the internet on this device this machine send the messages to the company to load the drink or maintain its services.

Characteristics of IoT

There are large no of devices, application, and other technology are developed at the present time so this improves the infrastructure of the IoT platform, at the present time their large number of applications and other the software uses the internet to improve their services.

The IoT services improve benefits and reduce the human the effort so we produce a large amount of product with efficiently, according to expert 31% IoT devices are developed by year over year and the market value of the IoT devices reach up to 7.1 trillion dollars in 2020.

Technology for IoT

There are a large number of wired or wireless devices are connected to each other with the help of IoT, Due to the interconnection between the devices, we can send and receive the data very fast, for the communication between two or more devices IP address is required.

The IP address of the device is unique and every internet consumer device has their unique device so when we send data to the particular the device then it goes to their original destination, The transmission of the data from one point to another point with the help of the internet is called protocol there are many types of protocol are establish for the transmission of data from one point to another point

What internet of things definition and example

The OSI model seven layer of computer networking

Networking 7 layer
Networking 7 layer

The full form of OSI model is open system  interconnection it is a process which are used to send data or receive the data from one place to another place, there are seven layers in the OSI model which help us to send or receive the data properly

When the data transfer from one point to another point then these data go to their destination to follow some rules, these rules are OSI model rules and universally accepted the development of the OSI model is being ISO (Internation system organization) in 1976

The OSI model plays a very important role in networking, Telecom industry and other places, in the OSI model every process are pre-define so we can easily see that what happen next, the working process of the OSI model is being stepped by step

Seven-layer of computer networking

The seven-layer of the OSI model is arranged according to the sender or receiver if we send the file then the order is different and when we receive the file than the order of the layer is different

Layers according to sender                             Layers according to receiver

Application layer                                                                     Physical layer
Presentation layer                                                                    Data link-layer
Session layer                                                                            Network layer
Transport layer                                                                        Transport layer
Network layer                                                                          Session layer                                     
Datalink layer                                                                          Presentation layer
Physical layer                                                                          Application layer

(1) Application layer

The application layer is one of the most important layers of the OSI model because all the services and feature of the given program and file are used with the help of the application, so this is the most important layer in the networking because without the application we can not use their services and not see their interface.

Most of the social media platform like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram provide their services with the help of the application, Application is a medium which helps us to use the services and feature in networking so we can not imagine the OSI model without the application layer.

(2) Presentation layer

This is another most important layer under the OSI model because when we send data from one position to another position then to provide the security of this data we modify this data, Before the sending of the data we encrypt this data so not any third party can read this data, this data is decrypted only the key which has known only sender and receiver so the encryption of the data provides security to the data.

The encryption data is called ciphertext and the cipher text of the different type of data is different, Before the sending of this data we compress this data so the size of data is reduced and it reaches their destination in the less time, sometimes we need to change the data language so we can  convert the language of this data during the presentation layer.

(3) Session layer

When data goes to one place to another through the wire or wireless than to establish a connection between two computer session layer is used, when data is transfer to another computer then this layer analyzes the data transferring and make the connection stable this layer is also checked how many data send and receive by the computers.

(4) Transport layer

This layer plays a very important role during the transmission of data, under this section the given data is divided into the different segments and each segment have their own identity and when this segment data reach their destination then they are reassembled and make a single file.

Transmission layer also controls the connection between two or more computer, this layer is responsible to check the errors during the data transmission when we transfer file then it controls the rate of data transferring and make it stable, during the transmission of data there are many the protocol is taken in use such as TCP/UDP.

(5) Network layer

After the addressing of each segment of the give data, this data are available to send from one point to another point when we send this data we have need their address because without the receiver address this data not reach their destination, in the networking the address of each device are called IP (Internet Protocol) address.

We can not send or receive data without the IP addresses in the networking each device have their own IP address and this is unique this the layer is also chek the perfect path to send this data their destination, the router is working on this layer.

(6) Datalink layer

The give data of the user in the form of plain text which are easy to read but when we send it then they converted into ciphertext which are not understandable so no any third party can miss using our data so under this layer, we provided the security of our data to cover (framing) it, this layer also controls the rate of data flowing.

(7) Physical layer

This layer establishes the connection between the two connecting medium which is connected with each other with the help of wire or wireless this layer converts the received data into the bit from because when we receive the data then they are into ciphertext which is nor understandable so the conversation is necessary.

Under the physical layer, the transmission is established between the computers with the help of some modes which are given below.

(a) Simplex mode

Under the simplex mode, the data are transferring only one side, in the simplex mode one device work as sender only and another is work as receiver only.

(b) Half-duplex mode

Under the half-duplex mode, the device is work as sender and receiver but at the time it works as sender and another time it works as receiver so this communication is called half-duplex because either user send the message or receive the message at the time.

The Woki Toki is the example of half-duplex because at the time either we send the data or receive the data.

(c) Full duplex mode

During the full-duplex mode the device is work as a sender or the receiver at the time, the mobile phone is the example of the full-duplex because at the time we send and receive data with the help of mobile


7 layer of networrking

What is Ethernet?

Ethernet is the type of LAN (local area network) it is used to transfer data from one place to another place with approximate speed, Ethernet is used to make a network connection between a large number of computers

Is Ethernet a protocol | Ethernet cable speed test

We can say that the Ethernet connection is like Topology, Because a large number of computer can be attached to this technology and share their data with high speed if we transfer our data with the help of wireless connection than a fear in our mind to lose our data or hijack of this data so wireless connection is less secure than a cable network

In the Ethernet connection, most of the data is passes through the wire so there is no fear to lose or hijack our data and the Ethernet is provided is more security our network system so it is widely used in the Ethernet we have more control on the network communication

Advantage of Ethernet connection

There are many advantages of Ethernet which are discussed as below

(a) This technology is less expensive with respect to another technology so it is the reason people use this technology is more.

(b) when data is transfer through the wire then under the Ethernet technology then it works as noise resistor so it is an environment friendly but in the wireless communication the data is passed over the high the frequency which may be harmful to our health

(c) In the Ethernet connection, we can access stable and approximate speed so this is another property of this technology but in the wireless communication the speed of data transfer is not stable and change according to the time

(d) The Ethernet is more reliable than other technology it provided more security and high-speed data transfer feature

Disadvantage of Ethernet

There are some disadvantages of Ethernet which are discussed as below

(a) The Ethernet is used only limited area such as office, Bank, School, Company, etc

(b) If we create an Ethernet network then we need long cables

(C) If the traffic is increasing on the Ethernet network then speed of the network decreases so this is another disadvantage of Ethernet

(d) In the Ethernet services, the data is passed through the wire so data is not sharing in the packet form, in the Ethernet the data is sharing in small parts but continuously sharing.

Is Ethernet a protocol | Ethernet cable speed test


The algorithm is the combination of steps which are used to solve computer problems step by step and do other work which are program based, the algorithm is basically a program which helps us to run any software or apps on the device

The algorithm of any software is a very important part and without the algorithms, we cannot properly use any software because the algorithm contains those steps which are useful to run this software

Example of algorithm

To understand the algorithm in the simple language let us take an example to suppose we want to send a message to another person so to do this we can type a message and send those people which we want, this message we send with the help of some software which maybe Facebook, what’s up, Instagram etc

The above application help us to send the message to another person but before the receiving of this message on the right person it follows some rules to reach their destination without any quarry these rules or steps are called algorithm and it helps us to do any work step by step
Properties of the algorithm.

(1) Finiteness

Those algorithm which is shorter length are good algorithm because it is easy to usable and when we want to configure it then we can do it very easily the shorter length algorithm does work very fast and effective so we need to try a shorter length algorithm to run the programs.

(2) Precisely

The every step of the algorithms are pre-define so we can easily see that what happens in the next step, if we solve the mathematical problem with With the help of the algorithm then we can easily do it because it works step by step.

(3) Unambiguous

The algorithms of any programs are detailed explain and do any work step by step so the chance of any wrong work is negligible if we want to configure any this then we change some algorithm to our desire and make it for our usable

What is an algorithm and their property

What is the web?

Web browse and hyperlink in html definition
Web browse and hyperlink in HTML definition

The full form of www is world wide web it is the collection of all URL (uniform resource locator) which save on the internet most of the people think that the web and internet are the same things but in reality, both are different

The internet is the medium which helps us to reach our desire web pages or our other information;      We can say that internet is the most important element on the network communication which helps us to connect various devices which use internet data such as Mobiles, computers, laptops, etc.

To understand the web in the simple language let us take an example suppose we want to reach a place then we need their address, without the address we cannot reach that place, this address we gain with the help our relatives or any other sources similarly in the networking if we want to reach a particular web page or any other site then we need their address (URL), this the address is saved on the web which is www, so we can say that www is important element on network communication

HyperText and hyperlink

If we want to reach a website or any web page then we simply search on the browser and go to our site but before reaching our site we click on some given text which is shown on the search result then this text is called hypertext and the link which is attached to the given text is called hyperlink
If we create a hyperlink on our web pages then we can easily create it first of all select of those words which we want to make a hypertext after this process press ctrl+K button on the keyboard after this process a new page will be open we just add the link on the given area and save then after this process, the given text will be making a hypertext

Difference between HTTP or https protocol

Protocol means a set of rules in the network communication, On the internet, there are a large number of data is send and receive by the internet user so a rule is required to send this data on their consumer so this rule is called a protocol, HTTP or HTTPS is a type of protocol they are helping us to send and receive without any problems but if we send data through the HTTP protocol then there are a chance to lost this data or hijack our computer by the hacker so this a protocol may be dangerous

But if we use HTTPS protocol then there is no fear in our mind because this protocol is secure and no hacker steal our data when we send data to our relatives or any other the full form of HTTPS is Hypertext transfer protocol with security this protocol is widely used because this is trusted if you want to more about the internet protocol then click on the below and gain the full knowledge of internet protocol (IP) address

                                                  Click here

Web browse and hyperlink in html definition

What is BIOS?

BIOS and UEFI in computer system example
BIOS and UEFI in computer system example 

The full form of BIOS is Basic input output system is software which checks the all input or output devices running statues which connected to the Computer it is like as firmware if you not know what is firmware then we explain in short form, Firmware is a software which attached to the electronic devices and help it to do some basic work which we program on it

When we start the computer then, first of all, BIOS of the computer is starting and check all components which attached to the computer if all the components in their working condition then the computer will be started so we can say that BIOS is the first software which starts first when we power ON of the computer

The BIOS is also used for booting of the device when we start the computer then before the starting all process which is required to ON the device is called Post (Power ON self-test), after the booting process, the computer is eligible for ON.

The BIOS of the computer is fixed on the motherboard of the computer, it looks like a chip which is called CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) the BIOS chip of the computer is non-volatile (No any data loss when we OFF Computer)

What is UEFI?

The full form of UEFI is Unified extensible firmware interface, it is also a type of BIOS but it is more advance with compare to BIOS so at the present time this UEFI is used on most of the computer and other devices

Difference between BIOS and UEFI

(a) In the BIOS we can do work with the help of keyboard only but in the UEFI we can do work with keyboard and mouse so it is easy to use we can easily configure any setting with the help of mouse but in the BIOS the only keyboard is allowed to do changes

(b) BIOS of the computers are supported only limited storage drives so this is the big reason to replace the BIOS of the computers but at the present time UEFI is taken is used which is supported a large amount of storage drives

(c) In the BIOS the all setting show on the blue screen and the values of the different component are shown in numbers only but in the UEFI the values of the different component are shown both values or graphical which make it too attractive, we can easily see all the details of the computer in the graphical form

BIOS and UEFI in computer system example

SD card types
SD card format

The full form of SD card is Secure digital card it is a nonvolatile (After the turn OFF the device the storage data is not deleted) memory which is used to save our file, videos, audio and other data, there are different types of SD card available on the market and prise of these cards are different according to their property

So in this article, we know that how many types of SD card exist and why two same SD card available on different prices and how to we choose the best SD card for our device because there are many variant are available of SD in the shop

Types of SD card

There are mainly three types of SD cards which are given as below
(1) SDSC
(2) SDHC
(3) SDXC

(1) SDSC (Secure digital standard capacity)

This memory card is made for the normal uses we found this the memory card in the mobile phones, these memories are cheaper than other memory and the storage capacity of this memory is lies between 128MB to 4GB

(2) SDHC (Secure digital high capacity)

This is another type of SD card this memory card is widely used, we use this memory in our mobile phone this SD card is more expensive than SDSC card, the storage range of this memory is lies between 4GB to 32GB

(3) SDXC (secure digital extended capacity)

These memories are used in the high definition camera or another high storages devices, these memories are not made for the mobile phone because the storage capacity of this memory card is more than other memory these memories are more expensive with respect to SDSC, SDHC memory card, the storage capacity of this SD card is lies between 64GB to 2TB

Classes of SD card

When we transfer file from SD card to another device then the speed of data transferring differs from other memory this difference is due to memory constriction and quality so to see all detail about the memory we classified this SD card into different classes which are given as below.

Classes                                 Speed
2                                              2mbps
4                                              4mbps
6                                              6mbps
8                                              8mbps
10                                           10mbps
UHS-1                                   100+ Mbps
USH-2                                   300+ Mbps
UHS-3                                   600+ Mbps

SD card recovery

If we delete some file unfortunately from the SD card then we recover these file from the SD card to doing these process we need software which are easily available

To recover the SD card, first of all, we download a software which name is Recover it, To install this the software in our PC go to any browser such as Google and type recover it after this process there are many site list are shown but we click on the first link and download the software according to our operating system

After the downloading process, we install this software in our PC, the installation process can take some time it depends on the internet quality so takes patient, after the installation process of the software we just open this recover it software and choose those option which we want to do with the help of this software

But in this article, I will talk you to recover the SD card so click on the recover SD card but before the clicking on this option we plug that SD card on the PC which we want to recover it so, first of all, check the recover device is connected to the PC

After the checking the SD card we click on the recover SD card option and choose SD card from the drive after selecting the SD card we click on the start now option so the scanning process of the SD card is starts now and it scans all those which are deleted from the SD card the scanning process can take some time so take patient

After the scanning process, it shows all the file list which are deleted from the SD car so our desire we choose the file and recover the file which is deleted from the memory after this process the deleted file are recover in our device and we can use this file

What are SD card formatter and recovery?

In our country or any other country, there are a large number of Chinese app are used these Chinese apps takes much permission to us to give their services but in reality, there are no many permission are required to run this application these application takes permission for our gallery access, contact access and other permission and we give permission without any thinking so this step may be dangerous for our privacy.

So to save our personal data or activity on the phone or other devices we did not give any unwanted permission to the apps only required permission takes to give this application if that permission which is not necessary to give this application we just deny this option and go to next process.

If the given app takes permission without any reason the it is the best choice to delete this app from the mobile or not use in future because these apps or software may be dangerous for our device and under the given services these applications steal our personal data or miss-use this data so keep to save this we may be always alert and very carefully uses this application.

Tik Tok alternative apps

Tik Tok app is banned in many countries so many people are searching for their best alternative so in this article, I suggest you best alternative apps, we can use Tik Tik, or Mitron apps because these apps are developed in India and many users are uses this app after the banning of Tik Tok  app because these are may be dangerous for our privacy so the government  banned this application.

Best browser for browsing

Google chrome and firebox is the best browser for browsing because these application base browser any take more permission this browser takes only limited permission which is necessary to run this application so we can trust on this application the Google chrome is one of the most uses the browser in all around the world because this is trusted application and Google make this browser too powerful

So we can use this browser without any fear in our mind, on the chrome browser Google provided the best security system because very large number of people who uses this application so to secure their user data and the activity of using Google is responsible to secure their data

If we use UC Browser then we have to take the knowledge about this application because these are Chinese app any take unwanted the permission which is not necessary to run this application so we do not use this type of application which accesses unwanted permission because after the given of permission the miss use our data and damage our device with installing the unwanted viruses or software so before the uses of these apps we always alert.

File or apps transfer apps

If we transfer files, folder, apps or any other data then we can use Jio switch or Google file share app because these apps are stand on the privacy policy which we required these apps are trusted and no any data will be miss-use after using this application these application is too fast and easy to useable, these are no ads are shown in this app so it is better for us because other file share apps take us unwanted permission which is not necessary to take them.

If we use to share it or xender app for file transfer then we see that these apps take much-unrequited permission which is not necessary so we not use these type of apps, these apps show many ads which are irritating for the user, so if we did not see any ads so just download those apps which are discuss above

Best apps for news

There are many apps that are available which provides us better news without any permission access these apps are Dailyhunt, Google news, etc.

These apps follow their privacy policy deceleration and according to their privacy, these apps take only limited access or no access to the phone security so it is better for us because when we give unwanted permission to the apps then it may be harmful to our device or our data security because under the given permission these apps reach our personal data and collect this data for our profit

If we use UC news than we know very well these apps show too many ads and required permission to access it which is not necessary to use this app we have another best alternative of this application which are discussing above, we did not use fraud application because this application downloaded unwanted malware or viruses which destroy our phone so before the use of these application for a long time we can check the privacy policy of these application and save our data

Best apps for Junk cleaner or RAM booster

Most of the mobile manufacturer company give those apps which clean the junk file and boost the RAM of the device these apps are sufficient for the mobile and these apps are trusted because these apps are included in the phone when the phone is assembled s we have no need to install any apps to clean our junk file or boot our RAM.

If we want to install some apps to clean the junk file or cache data then there are many apps are available just as C cleaner this is non-Chinese app any to take unwanted permission these apps we use without any permission and there is no fear to lose our personal data or miss-use our data

 Some junk cleaner app are harmful to our device first of all these apps are installed on our phone and download another app which we have no need this software may be virus or another malware so before the installing these apps we can check it with the help of some antivirus software then install these apps this process is saved for our device

Video editing apps

If you use the viva video editing app then you have to know that this is a Chinese app, this app also takes unwanted permission which is not necessary for this app so just delete this app because e have another best alternative apps that we can use to edit the videos.

These apps are Inshot, Kine master, Power Director, these apps are trusted and easily available on play store or another app store these apps do not take unwanted permission so our data is secure and no third party software can access our personal data so keep saving us we use only legal application

Tik tok alternative | Chinese apps Best alternative